ACTiViTY 1:

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*THiS iS THE THiNGS i LEARNED iN THE ACTiViTY*

  • wounds--> made by extremely sharp blade.
  • blackened gum--> it's because they are drinking too much wine.
  • insect bite--> it's because of the mosquito
  • whip scars-> it causes severe, repeated blows to the body from some kind of lash.
  • identity tag--> it is use for human..or slaves.
  • wax tablet--> it is a writing tool that is common in Rome. marks are made of beeswax using stylus.
  • food--> their typical lunch is pork escalope with wine cakes
  • Scalpel--> is common doctor tool in Rome.
  • religion statue--> it is a base metal. Roman deity Hygeia
  • honey suckles--> they use this as their cure on their illness.
  • coins-> their coins have different sizes the small coins is called forgeries, the larger coins are called one-Sestertius , the smaller coins are called one-denarius.


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-THiS iS THE THiNGS i LEARNED iN THiS ACTiViTY-

--> ROMAN gladiators were armed in a variety of styles,designed to mimic mythical figures and Rome's past enemies.
gladiators are match to make their fight more exiting and entertaining.
*MURMILLO WERE MATCH HIS OPPONENT THRAEX.*
*RETIARIUS WILL BE MATCHING WITH SECUTOR.*
*HOPLOMACHUS WILL BE MATCHING MURMILLO*




ACTiViTY 2 :

THE BIRTH OF ROME Rome was the capital of the enormous empire. Twin brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E founded the city of Rome. According to legend they were from a wealthy family and were abandoned by their uncle. A She-wolf took them in and raised them. Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control as leader of Rome. ROMAN CONQUEST In 509 the last Etruscan monarch was overthrown as ruler of Rome and a Republican system of government was initiated. THE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT Octavian became the first Roman Emperor in 27 B.C.E. The Senate gave him the title of Augustus, which meant revered one. ROMAN RELIGION The family included all household members who lived together. Father of the family ruled the household Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran businesses and managed estates. Ancestor worship was extremely important to the family. FORUMS OF ROME The Carthaginians, under Hannibal were not successful in maintaining control over Roman cities. Rome invades Carthage and beat Hannibal and his men. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E. Carthage lost Spain. 50 years later Rome went to war again and this time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E. and claimed it as a Roman province called Africa. HADRIAN'S WALL In the later years of the Republic the Plebians became more powerful. They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in 471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage. In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to pass laws for all Romans. ROMAN SPLENDOR Etruscan was the town conquered by Rome. At the time of its destruction it had a population of 20,000 A favorite resort of wealthy Romans and Emperors ROMAN AMUSEMENTS Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin Started in 118 A.D. It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light hitting the sculptures inside SLAVERY Slaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population. Working conditions for slaves in the cities were somewhat better. Laborers would often be chained together while working in the fields. Spartacus’ uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest slave revolt, but not the only one. CHRISTIANITY This is a period of peace and prosperity, which begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years. Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line, which ends with Nero. After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian becomes emperor. COLLAPSE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE The family included all household members who lived together. Father of the family ruled the household Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran businesses and managed estates.

ACTiViTY 3 :



ACTiViTY 4:

PART ONE~

Ancient Rome
Early Western Civilization
The Etruscans
• The Etruscans were a group of people who were from northern Italy.
• 7 kings had ruled Italy and it is thought that at least 3 were Etruscans.
• The Etruscans greatly influenced the city of Rome. They built temples, shops, roads, and homes and influenced other aspects of Roman culture as well.
The Founding of Rome
• Twin brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E founded the city of Rome.
• According to legend they were from a wealthy family and were abandoned by their uncle.
• A She-wolf took them in and raised them.
• Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control as leader of Rome.
Social and Political Order
• Although both groups were Roman citizens, their rights were different.
• Both Patricians and Plebians could vote.
• Both had the right to make legal contracts, and marry, but intermarriage between the classes was not allowed.
• Patricians were the only ones allowed to hold office.
• In the later years of the Republic the Plebians became more powerful.
• They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in 471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage.
• In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to pass laws for all Romans.
The Roman Conquest of Italy
• In509 the last Etruscans monarch was overthrown as ruler of Rome and a Republican system of government was initiated.
The Punic Wars
• Punic is the Latin word for Phoencian. The Phoencians controlled Carthage in earlier times.
• 241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due to Roman dominance in naval strength.
• Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second Punic War when he retaliated against Roman attempts to get Spain to invade Carthage.
• Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000 horses and elephants across the Alps and defeated the Romans.
• Rome invades Carthage and beat Hannibal and his men. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E. Carthage lost Spain.
• 50 years later Rome went to war again and this time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E. and claimed it as a Roman province called Africa.
From Republic to Empire
• Tiberius Gracchus represented interests of Rome’s lower class. He served as Tribune.
• He was assassinated in 132 B.C.E.
• His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his brother’s reforms.
Gaius Marius
• General in the Roman army. He was prominent in the late 2nd century B.C.E.
• Civil War breaks out in Rome and Marius seizes Rome in 87 B.C.E. He recruited a private army to support him from landless residents.
Sulla
• After Marius dies in 87 B.C.E., Sulla seized control of Rome. He institutes a reign of terror that lasts about five years.
• Julius Caesar, Marius’ nephew, came to power and instituted liberal policies and social reform.
Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar
• Octavian became the first Roman Emperor in 27 B.C.E.
• The Senate gave him title of Augustus, which meant revered one.
Julius Caesar
• In 47 B.C.E he seized power in Rome and was made dictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. e was given the title dictator for life.
• He made land reforms and gave land to the poor.
• He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it with supporters of his reforms.
• He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 B.C.E.
Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.)
• He created a standing army of 150,000 men split into legions of around 5,000 men each.
• Only Roman citizens could be legionaries. Subject peoples in the provinces and else where could serve under the legionaries.
• Augustus also created the Praetorian Guard, which were his own personal guards. They numbered about 9,000 men.
The Pax Romana
• This is a period of peace and prosperity, which begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years.
• Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line, which ends with Nero.
• After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian becomes emperor.
Family Life in the Roman Empire
• The family included all household members who lived together.
• Father of the family ruled the household.
• Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran business and managed estates.
• Ancestor worship was extremely important to the family.
Slavery
• Slaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population.
• Working conditions for slaves in the cities were somewhat better.
• Laborers would often be chained together while working in the fields.
• Spartacus’ uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest slave revolt, but not the only one.
PoMpeii
• Etruscan town that was conquered by Rome.
• At the time of its destruction it had a population of 20,000
• A favorite resort of wealthy Romans and Emperors.
The Pantheon 128 A.D.
• Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin
• Started in 118 A.D.
• It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light hitting the sculptures inside.

Questions

1. What is the story of how Rome started?
• Twin brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E founded the city of Rome. According to legend they were from a wealthy family and were abandoned by their uncle. A She-wolf took them in and raised them. Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control as leader of Rome.

2. Describe the political and social order in early ancient Rome.
• Although both groups were Roman citizens, their rights were different. Both Patricians and Plebians could vote. Both had the right to make legal contracts, and marry, but intermarriage between the classes was not allowed. Patricians were the only ones allowed to hold office. In the later years of the Republic the Plebians became more powerful. They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in 471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage. In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to pass laws for all Romans.

3. What happened in the Punic Wars?
• 241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due to Roman dominance in naval strength. Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second Punic War when he retaliated against Roman attempts to get Spain to invade Carthage. Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000 horses and elephants across the Alps and defeated the Romans. Rome invades Carthage and beat Hannibal and his men. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E. Carthage lost Spain. 50 years later Rome went to war again and this time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E. and claimed it as a Roman province called Africa.

4. Why was Julius Caesar so important?
• In 47 B.C.E he seized power in Rome and was made dictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. e was given the title dictator for life. He made land reforms and gave land to the poor. He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it with supporters of his reforms.

5. Describe Roman Family Life.
• The family included all household members who lived together. Father of the family ruled the household. Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran business and managed estates.

PART 2~


What was the Roman Empire?
• Roman government had two periods
- Roman Republic 509 BCE - 30 BCE
- Roman Empire 30 BCE – 476 CE
• Roman technically had an “empire” under the Roman Republic.
- But the term “Roman Empire” refers to the time period, beginning with Augustus, when the emperors ruled Rome.
Octavian Becomes Augustus
• Octavian was sole ruler of Rome after his forces defeated Antony ad Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium.
• “Augustus” means “most high”
• 23 BCE – Octavian, now referred to as Augustus, was made consul for life by the Senate
• Also made… “Princeps” means “first citizen”, origin of the word “prince”; “Imperator” means “successful general” origin of the word “emperor”; “Pontifex Maximus” or “chief religious leader” origin of the word “pontiff” (used to describe the pope today);
• Also made a tribune
• He had the power to call the Senate, veto the Senate’s laws, and make laws himself
Primus inter pares
• “First among equals”
• gave the illusion that an emperor was the most prestigious and important member of the Roman Senate, but that each senator was simultaneously equally important
Rome under Augustus: A Golden Age
• Attempted to reform public morals by promoting family life (largely unsuccessful).
• Began the practice of declaring emperors gods, and of picking their own successors. (He called Haley’s Comet the spirit of Caesar.)
• Built and maintained the empire’s infrastructure (e.g., roads).
• Encouraged the growth of business.
• Established fire and police departments for Rome.
• Established a strong money system.
• Extended citizenship to more and more provincials.
• Said he “found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.”
• Jesus, the founder of Christianity, was born in the Roman province of Judea during the reign of Augustus.
Pax Romana – Roman Peace
• Rome controlled the entire Mediterranean region and beyond
• peace lasted nearly 200 years
• More and more provincials were granted official Roman citizenship.
Roman Emperors after Augustus
• The office of emperor was initially designed to be hereditary
• But from the start, there was confusion as to which family member would inherit the throne
• Some emperors proved to be cutthroats, or insane, or both
• The military came to play an enormous role in selecting who would become emperor
Tiberius (14-37 CE)
• Stepson of Augustus
• Capable general who extended the frontier in the north
• Strengthened the empire
• Appeared to dislike ruling, and gradually retired to the island of Capri
• Abolished the assembly
Caligula (37 CE-41 CE)
• Son of famed military leader Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Tiberius
• Earned his name “Caligula,” meaning “little boots,” by the Roman army as a child (he was dressed like a soldier)
• Two years of good, effective rule, interrupted by a severe illness, and followed by two years of horrible rule
• Members of family and perceived enemies
o Exiled some, killed some, and forced others to commit suicide
• Assassinated in 41 CE by members of the Praetorian Guard
Claudius (41-54 CE)
• Brought southern Britannia (what later became Great Britain) under Roman control, as well as several kingdoms in the East
• Opened the Senate up to provincials
• Became emperor because he was the last adult male of his family (brother of Germanicus and uncle of Caligula)
• Conducted a census of the empire in 48 CE
• 5,984,072 Roman citizens
Nero (54-68 CE)
• Considered a tyrant
• Came to power after his mother allegedly poisoned his predecessor, Claudius
• Murdered his mother, his stepbrother, and two of his wives
• Also killed his teacher, the famous philosopher Seneca
• Fire in Rome (64 CE)
o Nero was accused of setting the fire, and of fiddling while the city burned
o Nero blamed the fire on the new religious group known as “Christians”
• Forced to commit suicide
Year of the Four Emperors (69 CE)
• Brief period of civil war after the death of Emperor Nero
• Four emperors ruled in quick succession
o Galba
o Otho
o Vitellius
o Vespasian
• Illustrated the problems of imperial succession
Vespasian (69-79 CE)
• Built the Colosseum in Rome
o Place where gladiatorial combats were held
• •First Jewish Revolt (66-70 CE)
• –Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, in the Roman province of Judea
o Carried out by Vespasian’s son, Titus
o This was the Second Temple (516 BCE-70 CE)
• First Temple (built by King Solomon ca. 960 BCE) had been destroyed in 586 BCE when the Babylonians conquered the Jews and embarked on what became known as the Babylonian Captivity
• Succeeded by son Titus, then son Domitian
Trajan (98-117 CE)
• Born into a non-patrician family in what is now Spain
• Massive public works program in Rome
o Trajan’s Column, Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Market
• Oversaw the expansion of the empire to its greatest extent
• Considered to have been a great emperor
Hadrian (117-138 CE)
• Strengthened the empire’s defenses
o Hadrian’s Wall separated Roman territory in Britannia from the Picts (in what is roughly now Scotland)
• Under Hadrian, the Romans put down the Second Jewish Revolt (Bar Kokhba Revolt), 132-136 CE
o Also known as the Second Jewish-Roman War
o Led by Simon Bar Kokhba, a man many believed to be the messiah
o Jews forced to leave Jerusalem after defeat
• Many historians date this as the official start of the Jewish Diaspora
Questions and Answer:
1.What are the dates for the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire?
- Roman Republic 509 BCE – 30 BCE
- Roman Empire 30 BCE – 476 CE
2.Explain the meaning of the Latin phrase primus inter pares.
- “first among equals”
- gave the illusion that an emperor was the most prestigious and important member of the Roman Senate, but that each senator was simultaneously equally important
3.Describe the accomplishments of Augustus.
- He developed well the Rome and made the people more faithful.
4.What was the Pax Romana?
- It is the Roman peace.
- It lasted nearly 200 years
- More and more provincials were granted official Roman citizenship
5.How do Caligula and Nero represent the problems of hereditary succession?
- Nero
- came to power after his mother allegedly poisoned his predecessor, Claudius
- murdered his mother, his stepbrother, and two of his wives
- forced to commit suicide
- Caligula
o two years of good, effective rule, interrupted by a severe illness, and followed by two years of horrible rule
o Members of family and perceived enemies
• Exiled some, killed some, and forced others to commit suicide


part 3 ~





activity 5 :

FiNiSH !!!!



activity 6 :


FiNiSH !!!


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